The Divine and the demoniacal attributes – Chapter 16 – Slokas 16.01 – 16.24

The Blessed Lord said, “abhayam sattva-samsuddhir
jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih
danam damas ca yajnas ca
svadhyayas tapa arjavam
– Fearlessness – abhayam, purity of the mind – sattva-samsuddhih, persistence in knowledge and yoga – jnāna-yoga-vyavasthitih, charity – dānam, control of the external organs – damah, sacrifice – yajnah, study of the scriptures – svādhyāyah, austerity and penance – tapah, rectitude – ārjavam – 

 

ahimsa satyam akrodhas
tyagah santir apaisunam
daya bhutesv aloluptvam
mardavam hrir acapalam
– Non-injury – ahimsā, truthfulness – satyam, absence of anger – akrodhah, renunciation – tyāgah, control of the internal organ – sāntih, absence of vilification – apaisunam, kindness to creatures – dayā, non-covetousness – aloluptvam, gentleness – mārdavam, modesty – hrih, freedom from restlessness – acāpalam

 

tejah ksama dhrtih saucam
adroho nati-manita
bhavanti sampadam daivim
abhijatasya bharata 
– Vigour – tejah, forgiveness – ksamā, fortitude – dhrtih, purity – saucam, freedom from malice – adrohah, absence of haughtiness – na-atimā-nitā – these, O scion of the Bharata dynasty, are the qualities of one born destined to have divine nature.

 

O son of Prthā, the attributes of one destined to have demoniacal nature are religious ostentation, pride, haughtiness, anger as also rudeness and ignorance. 

 

daivi sampad vimoksaya
nibandhayasuri mata
ma sucah sampadam daivim
abhijato ‘si pandava
– The divine nature is for Liberation, the demoniacal is considered to be for inevitable bondage. Do not grieve, O son of Pāndu! You are destined to have divine nature.

 

In this world, there are two kinds of creation of beings; the divine and the demoniacal. The divine creation of beings has been spoken of elaborately. Hear about the demoniacal from Me, O son of Prthā.

 

Neither do the demoniacal persons understand what is to be done and what is not to be done; nor does purity, or even good conduct or truthfulness exist in them.

 

They (the demoniacal persons) say that the whole world is unreal, it has no basis and is without a God. It is born of mutual union brought about by passion! What other cause can there be?

 

Holding on to this view, these people who are of depraved character, of poor intellect, given to fearful actions and harmful, wax strong for the ruins of the world.

 

Giving themselves up to insatiable passion, filled with vanity, pride and arrogance, adopting bad objectives due to delusion and having impure resolves, they engage in actions.

 

Beset with innumerable cares which end only with death, holding that the enjoyment of desirable objects is the highest goal – kāma-upabhoga-paramāh, feeling sure this is all –

 

Bound by hundreds of shackles in the form of hope – āsā-pāsa-sataih, giving themselves wholly to passion and anger – kāma-krodha-parāyanāh, they endeavour to amass wealth through foul means for the enjoyment of desirable objects – kāma-bhoga-artham.

 

‘This has been gained by me today; I shall acquire this desired object. This is in hand; again this wealth also will come to me’.

 

‘That enemy has been killed by me, and I shall kill others as well. I am the lord, I am the enjoyer, I am well-established, mighty and happy.’

 

‘I am rich and high-born; who else is there similar to me? I shall perform sacrifices; I shall give, I shall rejoice’, – thus, they are diversely deluded by non-discrimination.

 

Bewildered by numerous thoughts –  aneka-citta-vibhrāntāh, caught in the net of delusion – moha-jāla-samāvrtāh, and engrossed in the enjoyment of desirable objects – kāma-bhogesu, they fall into a foul hell.

 

Self-conceited – ātma-sambhāvitāh, haughty – stabdhāh, filled with pride and intoxication of wealth – dhana-māna-mada-anvitāh, they perform sacrifices which are so in name only, with ostentation – dambhena and regardless of the injunctions – avidhi-purvakam.

 

Resorting to egotism – ahankāram, power – balam, arrogance – darpam, passion – kāmam and anger – krodham, hating Me in their own and other’s bodies, they become envious by nature – abhyasuyakāh.

 

I cast forever all those hateful of Me, cruel, evil-doers in the worlds, vilest of human beings, verily into the demoniacal classes.

 

Being born among the demoniacal species in births after births, the fools, without ever reaching Me, O son of Kunti, they attain conditions lower than that.

 

tri-vidham narakasyedam
dvaram nasanam atmanah
kamah krodhas tatha lobhas
tasmad etat trayam tyajet
– This door of hell which is the destroyer of the soul is of three kinds – passion – kāmah, anger – krodhah and also greed – lobhah. Therefore one should forsake these three.

 

etair vimuktah kaunteya
tamo-dvarais tribhir narah
acaraty atmanah sreyas
tato yati param gatim
– O son of Kunti, a person who is free from these three doors to darkness strives for the good of the soul. Thereby he attains the Highest Goal.

 

yah sastra-vidhim utsrjya
vartate kama-karatah
na sa siddhim avapnoti
na sukham na param gatim
 – Ignoring the precept of the scriptures, he who acts under the impulsion of passion – he does not attain perfection, nor happiness, nor the Supreme Goal.

 

tasmac chastram pramanam te
karyakarya-vyavasthitau
jnatva sastra-vidhanoktam
karma kartum iharhasi –
Therefore, the scripture is your authority as regards the determination of what is to be done and what is not to be done. After understanding your duty as presented by scriptural injunction, you ought to perform your duty here.

 

[Chapter 16, Slokas 16.01 – 16.24]

Introspection:

Lord Krishna reveals the attributes and qualities exuded by those who adore Him and those who are destined for inevitable bondage.

 

Lord Krishna reveals the attributes and qualities of those persons who are ignorant and lacking discrimination and attracted and bound to the qualities and actions and thereby the modifications that are born of Nature.

 

Lord Krishna continues to reveal the nature of those persons who are ignorant and lacking discrimination and attracted and bound to the qualities and actions and thereby the modifications that are born of Nature.

 

Lord Krishna continues to reveal the nature of those persons who are attracted and bound to the qualities and actions and thereby the modifications that are born of Nature and destined for inevitable birth and rebirth.

 

Lord Krishna in the final verses of the Sixteen Chapter lays emphasis on the need to overcome and subdue tendencies of anger, passion and greed that are the doorways to hell and leads one to unhappiness and imperfection and instead to rein in these tendencies through the practices mentioned by the Lord and to strictly abide by the scriptural injunctions and scriptures to attain the Supreme Goal.

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