Arjuna said, “sannyasasya maha-baho
tattvam icchami veditum
tyagasya ca hrsikesa
prthak kesi-nisudana – O mighty-armed Hrsikesa, O slayer of Kesi, I want to know severally the truth – tattvam about sannyāsa as also about tyāga“.
The Blessed Lord said, “kamyanam karmanam nyasam
sannyasam kavayo viduh
prahus tyagam vicaksanah – The learned ones know sannyāsa to be the giving up – nyāsam of actions – karmanām with a desire of reward – kāmyānām. The adepts – vicaksanāh call the abandonment of the results of all works – sarva-karma-phala-tyāgah as tyāga.
tyajyam dosa-vad ity eke
karma prahur manisinah
na tyajyam iti capare – Some learned persons say that action, beset with evil as it is, should be given up, and others say that the practice of sacrifice, charity and austerity should not be given up.
niscayam srnu me tatra
tyago hi purusa-vyaghra
tri-vidhah samprakirtitah – O the most excellent among the descendants of Bharata, hear from Me the firm conclusion regarding that tyāga. For, O greatest among men, tyāga has been clearly declared to be of three kinds.
na tyajyam karyam eva tat
yajno danam tapas caiva
pavanani manisinam – The practice of sacrifice, charity and austerity – yajna-dāna-tapah-karma is not to be abandoned – na tyājyam; it is surely to be undertaken. Sacrifice – yajnah, charity – dānam and austerity – tapah are verily the purifiers – pāvanāni of the wise – manisinām.
etany api tu karmani
sangam tyaktva phalani ca
kartavyaniti me partha
niscitam matam uttamam – But even these actions – karmāni have to be undertaken – kartavyāni by renouncing – tyaktvā attachment – sangam and by giving up their results – phalāni. This is My firm and best conclusion, O Pārtha.
niyatasya tu sannyasah
mohat tasya parityagas
tamasah parikirtitah – The abandoning – sannyāsah of daily obligatory acts – niyatastya tu karmanah is not justifiable – na upapadyate. Giving up – parityāgah of that through delusion- mohāt is declared – parikirtitah to be based on tamas.
duhkham ity eva yat karma
sa krtva rajasam tyagam
naiva tyaga-phalam labhet – Whatever action – karma one may relinquish – tyajet merely as being painful – duhkham, from fear of physical suffering – kāya-klesa-bhayāt, he, having resorted to renunciation – tyāgam based on rajas, will surely not acquire the fruits of renunciation.
karyam ity eva yat karma
niyatam kriyate ‘rjuna
sangam tyaktva phalam caiva
sa tyagah sattviko matah – Whatever obligatory duty – niyatam karma is performed just because it is a bounden duty – kāryam, O Arjuna, by giving up – tyaktvā attachment – sangam and the result – phalam as well, – that renunciation – tyāgah is considered to be based on sattva.
na dvesty akusalam karma
medhavi chinna-samsayah – The man of renunciation – tyāgi who has become imbued with sattva – sattva- samāvistah, who is wise – medhāvi and freed from doubts – chinna-samsayah, does not hate – na dvesti unbefitting – akusalam action – karma, nor does he become attached – na anusajjate to befitting activity – kusale.
na hi deha-bhrta sakyam
tyaktum karmany asesatah
yas tu karma-phala-tyagi
sa tyagity abhidhiyate – Since it is not possible for one who holds on to a body to give up actions entirely, therefore he, on the other hand, who renounces results of actions is called a man of renunciation.
anistam istam misram ca
tri-vidham karmanah phalam
bhavaty atyaginam pretya
na tu sannyasinam kvacit – The threefold results of actions- the undesirable – anistam, the desirable – istam and the mixed – misram – accrues after death to those who do not resort to renunciation – atyāginām, but never to those who resort to monasticism – sannyāsinām.
karanani nibodha me
sankhye krtante proktani
siddhaye sarva-karmanam – O mighty-armed one, learn from Me these five – panca factors – kāranāni for the accomplishment – siddhaye of all actions – sarva-karmanām which have been spoken of in sānkhye in which actions terminate.
adhisthanam tatha karta
karanam ca prthag-vidham
vividhas ca prthak cesta
daivam caivatra pancamam – The locus being the body – adhisthānam as also the agent – kartā, the different kinds of – prthak vidham organs – karanam, the many –vividhāh distinct – prthak activities – cestā and the divine – daivam here is the fifth – pancamam.
karma prarabhate narah
nyayyam va viparitam va
pancaite tasya hetavah – Whatever action – karma a man performs – prārabhate with the body, speech and mind – sarira-vān-manobhih be it just – nyāyyam or – vā its reverse and opposite – viparitam, of it these five – panca are the causes – hetavah.
tatraivam sati kartaram
atmanam kevalam tu yah
na sa pasyati durmatih – This being the case – tatra evam sati, anyone who perceives – pasyati the absolute – kevalam Self – ātmānam as the agent- kartāram owing to the imperfection of his intellect – akrta-buddhitvāt, that man does not perceive properly and has a perverse intellect.
yasya nahankrto bhavo
buddhir yasya na lipyate
hatvapi sa imal lokan
na hanti na nibadhyate – He who has not the feeling of egoism – ahankrtah bhāvah, whose intellect – buddhih is not tainted – lipyate, he does not kill, nor does he become bound – even by killing these creatures!
jnanam jneyam parijnata
karanam karma karteti
tri-vidhah karma-sangrahah – Knowledge – jnānam, the object of the Knowledge – jneyam and the Knower – parijnātā – this is the threefold – trividhā inducement to action – karma-codanā. The comprehension of actions – karma-sangrahah comes under three heads – trividhah – the instrument – karanam, the object – karma and the subject – kartā.
jnanam karma ca karta ca
yathavac chrnu tany api – Knowledge – jnānam, action – karma and agent – kartā are stated – procyate in the teaching about the gunas – guna-sankhyāne to be only of three kinds – tridhā according to the differences of the gunas – guna-bhedatah. Hear about them also as they are.
bhavam avyayam iksate
taj jnanam viddhi sattvikam – Know – viddhi THAT – tat Knowledge – jnānam to be originating from sattva – sāttvikam through which – yena one sees – iksate a single – ekam undecaying – avyayam undivided – avibhaktam Entity – bhāvam in all the diversified – vibhaktesu things – sarvabhutesu.
But know that knowledge to be originating from rajas which, amidst all things, apprehends the different entities of various kinds as distinct.
But that knowledge is said to be born of tamas which is confined to one form as though it were all, which is irrational, not concerned with truth and trivial.
yat tat sattvikam ucyate – The daily obligatory – niyatam action – karma which is performed – krtam without attachment – sanga-rahitam without likes or dislikes – arāga-dvesatah by one who does not hanker for rewards – aphala-prepsunā, that is said to be born of sattva.
But that action is said to be born of rajas which is done by one desirous of results or by one who is egotistic, and which is highly strenuous.
That action is said to be born of tamas which is undertaken out of delusion, and without consideration of its consequence, loss, harm and ability.
karta sattvika ucyate – The agent – kartā who is free from attachment – mukta-sangah, not egotistic – anahamvādi, endowed with fortitude and diligence – dhrti-utsāha-samanvitah and unperturbed – nirvikārah by success and failure – siddhi-asiddhyoh is said to be possessed of sattva.
The agent who has attachment, who is desirous of the results of actions, covetous, cruel by nature, unclean and subject to joy and sorrow is declared to be possessed of rajas.
The agent is who is unsteady, naive, unbending, deceitful, wicked, lazy, morose and procrastinating is said to be possessed of tamas.
buddher bhedam dhrtes caiva
gunatas tri-vidham srnu
prthaktvena dhananjaya – O Dhananjaya, listen to the classification – bhedam of the intellect – buddheh as also of fortitude – dhrteh, which is threefold – trividham according to the gunas, while it is being stated – procyamānam elaborately – asesena and severally – prthaktvena.
pravrttim ca nivrttim ca
bandham moksam ca ya vetti
buddhih sa partha sattviki – O Parthā, that intellect – buddhih is born of sattva which understands – vetti action – pravrttim and withdrawal – nivrttim, duty and what is not duty – kārya-akārye, the source of fear and fearlessness – bhaya-abhaye and bondage – bandham and freedom – moksam.
O Parthā, that intellect is born of rajas with which one wrongly understands virtue and vice as also what ought to be done and what ought not to be done.
O Parthā, that intellect is born of tamas which, being covered by darkness, considers vice as virtue and verily perceives all things contrary to what they are.
dhrtya yaya dharayate
dhrtih sa partha sattviki – O Parthā, the firmness – dhrtyā that is unfailing – avyabhicārinyā through concentration – yogena, with which – yayā one restrains – dhārayate the mind, vital forces and the organs – manah-prāna-indriya-kriyāh, that firmness – dhrtih is born of sattva.
But O Parthā, the firmness with which one holds on to righteousness, covetable things and wealth, being desirous of their fruits as the occasion for each rises, that firmness is born of rajas.
That firmness is considered to be born of tamas due to which a person with a corrupt intellect does not give up sleep, fear, sorrow, despondency as also sensuality.
sukham tv idanim tri-vidham
srnu me bharatarsabha
abhyasad ramate yatra
duhkhantam ca nigacchati – Now – idānim hear from Me, O scion of the Bharata dynasty, as regards the three kinds of – trividham of joy – sukham: That in which – yatra one delights – ramate owing to habit – abhyāsāt, and certainly attains – nigacchati the cessation of sorrows – duhkhāntam.
yat tad agre visam iva
tat sukham sattvikam proktam
atma-buddhi-prasada-jam – That which – yat is like – iva poison – visam in the beginning – agre, but comparable to nectar – amrtopamam in the end – parināme and which arises from the purity of one’s intellect – ātma-buddhi-prasādajam – that – tat joy – sukham is spoken of – proktam of as born of sattva.
That joy is referred to as born of rajas which arising from the contact of the organs and their objects, is like nectar in the beginning, but like poison at the end.
That joy is said to be born of tamas which both in the beginning and in the sequel, is delusive to oneself and arises from sleep, laziness and inadvertence.
na tad asti prthivyam va
divi devesu va punah
sattvam prakrti-jair muktam
yad ebhih syat tribhir gunaih – There is no – na asti such – tat entity – sattvam in the world – prthivyām or, again – vā punah among the gods – devesu in heaven – divi, which – syāt can be free – muktam from these – ebhih three – tribhih gunas born of Nature – prakrti-jaih.
sudranam ca parantapa
svabhava-prabhavair gunaih – O scorcher of enemies – parantapa, the duties – karmāni of the Brāhmanas, the Kshatriyas and the Vaisyas – brāhmana-ksatriya-visām, as also of the Sudras – sudrānām have been fully classified – pravibhaktāni according to the gunas – gunaih born from Nature – svabhāva-prabhavaih.
samo damas tapah saucam
ksantir arjavam eva ca
jnanam vijnanam astikyam
brahma-karma svabhava-jam – The natural duties of the Brāhmanas – svabhāvajam brahma-karma are the control of the internal and external organs, austerity – tapah, purity – saucam, forgiveness – ksāntih, straightforwardness – ārjavam, knowledge – jnānam as also wisdom – vijnānam and faith – āstikyam.
The natural duties of the Ksatriyas are heroism, boldness, fortitude, capability and also not retreating from battle, generosity and lordliness.
The natural duties of the Vaishyas are agriculture, cattle-rearing and trade. Of the Sudras, too, the natural duty is in the form of service.
sve sve karmany abhiratah
samsiddhim labhate narah
yatha vindati tac chrnu – Being devoted to his own duty – sve sve karmani abhiratah, man – narah attains – labhate complete success – samsiddhim. Hear – srnu that – tat as to how – yathā one devoted to his own duty – sva-karma-niratah achieves – vindati success – siddhim.
yatah pravrttir bhutanam
yena sarvam idam tatam
sva-karmana tam abhyarcya
siddhim vindati manavah – A human being – mānavah achieves – vindati success – siddhim by adoring – abhyarcya through his own duties – svakarmanā Him – tam from whom – yatah is the origin – pravrttih of creatures – bhutānām by whom is all this pervaded.
sreyan sva-dharmo vigunah
kurvan napnoti kilbisam – One’s own duty – svadharmah though defective – vigunah, is superior – sreyān to another’s duty – paradharmāt well performed – su-anusthitāt. By performing – kurvan a duty – karma as dictated by one’s own nature – svabhāvaniyatam, one does not incur sin.
saha-jam karma kaunteya
sa-dosam api na tyajet
sarvarambha hi dosena
dhumenagnir ivavrtah – O son of Kunti, one should not give up – na tyajet the duty – karma to which one is born – sahajam, even though – api it be faulty – sadosam. For all undertakings – sarva-ārambhāh are surrounded – āvrtāh with evil – dosena, as fire – agnih is with smoke – dhumena.
sannyasenadhigacchati – He whose intellect remains unattached – asakta-buddhih to everything – sarvatra, who has conquered his internal organs – jitātmā and is desireless – vigata-sprhah, attains – adhigacchati through monasticism – sannyāsena the supreme – paramām perfection consisting in the state of one free from duties – naiskarmya-siddhim.
siddhim prapto yatha brahma
tathapnoti nibodha me
nistha jnanasya ya para – Understand for certain – nibodha from Me, in brief – samāsena indeed, O son of Kunti, that process by which one who has achieved success attains Brahman, which is the supreme consummation of Knowledge.
buddhya visuddhaya yukto
dhrtyatmanam niyamya ca
sabdadin visayams tyaktva
raga-dvesau vyudasya ca – Being endowed – yuktah with a pure – visuddhayā intellect – buddhyā, and controlling – niyamya oneself – ātmānam with fortitude – dhrtyā, rejecting – tyaktvā the objects – visayān – beginning from sound – sabdādin, and eliminating – vyudasya attachment and hatred – rāga-dvesau.
vairagyam samupasritah – One who resorts to solitude – vivikta-sevi, eats sparingly – laghu-āsi, has speech, body and mind under control – yata-vāk-kāya-mānasah, to whom meditation and concentration are ever the highest duty – dhyāna-yoga-parah nityam, and who is possessed – samupāsritāh of dispassion – vairāgyam.
ahankaram balam darpam
kamam krodham parigraham
vimucya nirmamah santo
brahma-bhuyaya kalpate – That person having discarded – vimucya egotism – ahankāram, force – balam, pride – darpam, desire – kāmam, anger – krodham and superfluous possessions – parigraham, free from the idea of possession – nirmamah, and serene – sāntah, is fit – kalpate for becoming Brahman – bhuyāya.
na socati na kanksati
samah sarvesu bhutesu
mad-bhaktim labhate param – One who has become Brahman – brahma-bhutah and has attained the blissful Self – prasanna-ātmā does not – na grieve – socati or desire – kānksati. Becoming the same – samah towards all beings – sarvesu bhutesu, he attains – labhate supreme – param devotion to Me – madbhaktim.
bhaktya mam abhijanati
yavan yas casmi tattvatah
tato mam tattvato jnatva
visate tad-anantaram – Through devotion – bhaktyā he knows – abhijānāti Me – mām in reality – tattvatah, as to what – yāvān and who I am – yah asmi. Then – tatah, having known – jnātvā Me – mām in truth – tattvatah, he enters – visate into Me immediately after that Knowledge.
sarva-karmany api sada
sasvatam padam avyayam – Ever – sadā engaging even in – kurvānah api all actions, one to whom I am the refuge – madvyapāsrayah, attains – āpnoti the eternal – sāsvatam, immutable – avyayam State – padam through My grace – mat-prasādāt.
mayi sannyasya mat-parah
mac-cittah satatam bhava – Mentally – cetasā surrendering – sannyasya all actions – sarva-karmāni to Me – mayi and accepting Me as the supreme – matparah, have your mind fixed – maccittah bhava ever – satatam on Me by resorting – upāsritya to the concentration of your intellect – buddhi-yogam.
atha cet tvam ahankaran
na srosyasi vinanksyasi – Having your mind fixed on Me – maccittah, you will cross over – tarisyasi all difficulties – sarva-durgāni through My grace – mat-prasādāt. If, one the other hand – atha cet, you – tvam do not listen – na srosyasi out of egotism – ahankārāt, you will get destroyed – vinanksyasi.
yad ahankaram asritya
na yotsya iti manyase
mithyaisa vyavasayas te
prakrtis tvam niyoksyati – That – yat you think –manyase ‘I shall not fight’ – ‘na yotsye’, by relying – āsritya on egotism – ahankāram, – vain – mithyā is – esah this determination – vyavasāyah of yours – te. Your nature – prakrtih will impel – niyoksyati you – tvām!
nibaddhah svena karmana
kartum necchasi yan mohat
karisyasy avaso ‘pi tat – Being bound – nibaddhah by your own – svena duty – karmanā born of nature – svabhāvajena, O son of Kunti, you, being helpless – avasah, will verily do – karisyasi api that – tat which – yat do not – na wish – icchasi to do owing to indiscrimination – mohāt.
hrd-dese ‘rjuna tisthati
yantrarudhani mayaya – O Arjuna, the Lord – Isvarah resides – tisthati in the region of the heart – hrd-dese of all creatures – sarva-bhutānām, revolving – bhrāmayan through Māyā – māyayā all the creatures – sarva-bhutāni as though mounted on a machine – yantra-ārudhāni!
tam eva saranam gaccha
tat-prasadat param santim
sthanam prapsyasi sasvatam – Take refuge – gaccha saranam in Him alone – tam eva with your whole being – sarva bhāvena, O scion of the Bharata dynasty. Through His grace – tat prasādāt you will attain – prāpsyasi the Supreme – parām Peace – sāntim and the eternal – sāsvatam Abode – sthānam.
iti te jnanam akhyatam
guhyad guhyataram maya
yathecchasi tatha kuru – To you – te has been imparted – ākhyātam by Me – mayā this – iti knowledge – jnānam which is more secret than any secret – guhyataram. Pondering over – vimrsya this – etat as a whole – asesena, do – kuru as you like – yathā icchasi tathā.
srnu me paramam vacah
isto ‘si me drdham iti
tato vaksyami te hitam – Listen – srnu again – bhutah to My – me highest – paramam utterance – vacah which is the profoundest of all – sarva-guhyatamam. Since – iti you are – asi ever – drdham dear – istah to Me, therefore – tatah I shall speak – vaksyāmi what is beneficial – hitam to you.
man-mana bhava mad-bhakto
mad-yaji mam namaskuru
mam evaisyasi satyam te
pratijane priyo ‘si me – Have your mind fixed on Me – bhava manmanā, be My devotee – mad-bhaktah, be a sacrificer to Me – madyāji and bow down – namaskuru to Me – mām. Thus, you will come – esyasi to Me – mām alone – eva. This truth – satyam do I promise – pratijāne to you – te. For you are – asi dear – priyah to Me – me.
mam ekam saranam vraja
aham tvam sarva-papebhyo
moksayisyami ma sucah – Abandoning – parityajya all forms of rites and duties – sarva-dharmān, take refuge – saranam vraja in Me alone – mām ekam. I – aham shall free –moksayisyāmi you – tvā from all sins – sarva-pāpebhyah. Therefore – mā do not grieve – sucah.
idam te natapaskaya
na casusrusave vacyam
na ca mam yo ‘bhyasuyati – This that I have taught you should not ever be taught to one who is devoid of austerities and to one who is not a devotee; also, neither to one who does not render service, nor as well to one who cavils at Me.
ya idam paramam guhyam
bhaktim mayi param krtva
mam evaisyaty asamsayah – He who – yah, entertaining – krtvā supreme – parām devotion – bhaktim to Me – mayi, will speak of – abhi-dhāsyati this – imam highest – paramam secret – guhyam to My devotees – madbhaktesu will without doubt reach Me alone.
na ca tasman manusyesu
kascin me priya-krttamah
bhavita na ca me tasmad
anyah priyataro bhuvi – And as compared with him, none else among human beings is the best accomplisher of what is dear to Me. Moreover, nor will there be anyone else in the world dearer to Me than he.
adhyesyate ca ya imam
dharmyam samvadam avayoh
istah syam iti me matih – And he who will study this sacred conversation between us two, which is conducive to virtue, by him I shall be adored through the Sacrifice in the form of Knowledge – jnāna-yajnena. This is My judgement.
sraddhavan anasuyas ca
srnuyad api yo narah
so ‘pi muktah subhal lokan
prapnuyat punya-karmanam – Any man who, being reverential and free from cavilling, might even hear this, he too, becoming free, shall attain the blessed worlds of those who perform virtuous deeds.
kaccid etac chrutam partha
pranastas te dhananjaya – O Pārtha, has this been listened to by you with a one-pointed mind? O Dhananjaya, has your delusion caused by ignorance been destroyed?”
Arjuna said, “nasto mohah smrtir labdha
sthito ‘smi gata-sandehah
karisye vacanam tava – O Acyuta, my delusion has been destroyed, and memory has been regained by me through Your grace. I stand with my doubt removed; I shall follow Your instruction.”
Sanjaya said, “ity aham vasudevasya
parthasya ca mahatmanah
samvadam imam asrausam
adbhutam roma-harsanam – I thus heard this conversation of Vāsudeva – vāsudevasya and of the great-souled Pārtha – mahātmanah pārthasya, which is unique – adbhutam and makes one’s hair stand on end – roma-harsanam.
etad guhyam aham param
yogam yogesvarat krsnat
saksat kathayatah svayam – Through the favour and grace of Vyāsa I heard this secret concerning the supreme Yoga from Krsna, the Lord of Yogas, while He Himself was actually speaking!
rajan samsmrtya samsmrtya
samvadam imam adbhutam
hrsyami ca muhur muhuh – And, O King, while repeatedly remembering – samsmrtya samsmrtya this unique – adbhutam sacred – punyam dialogue – samvādam between Kesava and Arjuna, I rejoice – hrsyāmi every moment – muhuh muhuh.
tac ca samsmrtya samsmrtya
rupam aty-adbhutam hareh
vismayo me mahan rajan
hrsyami ca punah punah – O King, repeatedly recollecting – samsmrtya samsmrtya that greatly extraordinary – ati-adbhutam form – rupam of Hari – hareh, I am struck with wonder – mahān vismayah me. And I rejoice – hrsyāmi again and again – punah punah.
yatra yogesvarah krsno
yatra partho dhanur-dharah
tatra srir vijayo bhutir
dhruva nitir matir mama – Where there is Krsna, the Lord of yogas, and where there is Pārtha, the wielder of the bow, there are fortune – srih, victory – vijayah, prosperity – bhutih and unfailing – dhruvā prudence – nitih. Such is my conviction.
[Chapter 18, Slokas 18.01 – 18.78]
Lord Krishna in the above verses reiterates the importance of engaging in the acts of yajnah, dānam and tapah which are the three kinds of tyāga. Tyāga means giving up or abandonment of the fruits and results of actions that are born of Nature and bound to Nature.
Lord Krishna reveals the importance of engaging in nitya karma and in the acts of yajnah, dānam and tapah which are the three kinds of tyāga by giving up sangam and phalam. The reason is sannyāsa that is abandoning of all actions is impossible for one born in Nature as the intrinsic quality of Nature is action. Sannyāsa, abandoning of all actions including nitya karma, yajnah, dānam and tapah reveals that one is still bound to Nature and has not known purusah and prakrti along with their qualities.
Lord Krishna in the above verses lays downs the causes for the actions performed by the body, speech and mind to be of five factors namely the body that is also the agent, the different kinds of organs, the many distinct activities and the divine. Lord Krishna yet again reveals the importance of karma-phala-tyāgam and sannyāsinām to those who thus know purusah and prakrti along with their qualities and thereby remain in the bliss of the Self.
Lord Krishna in the above verses reiterates the importance of gratitude, absolute surrender and singular one-pointed conviction on the Supreme Goal to see the Self as existing within and outside and all-pervading and as existing equally in all the beings so that the Self will not injure the Self and thereby attain the Supreme Goal. The Supreme Self is indivisible, subtlest than the subtlest atom, the Supreme Light, the Supreme Being and the Supreme Goal.
As Lord Krishna has instructed, it is imperative to undertake rightful karma, yajnah, dāna and tapah with absolute surrender and renouncing the fruits of the karma with the one-pointed conviction on the Supreme Goal at all times.
Lord Krishna in the above verses reveals the experience and nature of one who is endowed with sattva and who is diligently following the instructions of the Lord and engaging in rightful duty renouncing the fruits of the actions and duties and remaining in the bliss of the Self at all times.
Lord Krishna in the above verses elaborates further on the various qualities and attributes of the gunas expressing the importance of sattva, being imbued with faith and engaging in rightful duty, yajnah, dāna and tapah while renouncing the fruits of actions.
Lord Krishna in the above verses reveals the three kinds of sukham and also goes on to reveal that no one born in this Nature can be free from these three kinds of gunas that are born of Nature.
Lord Krishna in the above verses reveals the rightful duty that one should engage in based on the classification of the gunas that are the natural actions befitting that classification.
Lord Krishna in the above verses reveals the state of a jeevamukta, one who is liberated and has realized the Self with the physical body and continues to exist in the bliss of the Self with no duty to perform till such time as the physical body falls down.
Lord Krishna also reiterates the importance of one’s duty and engaging in rightful duty and action but renouncing the fruits of actions and duties while being steadfast on the Supreme Goal at all times.
Lord Krishna in the above verses explains the importance of engaging in rightful duties of yajnah-dāna-tapah and practising karma-phala-tyāgah while being steadfast on the Supreme Goal at all times through dhyāna-yoga that is considered to be the parah-nityam. This will help one to know purusah and prakrti along with its qualities and thereby know in entirety the creation, sustenance and annihilation of the Matrix of beings and thus, enter into the Supreme Being never to return after that Knowledge.
Lord Krishna in the above verses instructs Arjuna to do his rightful duty as his own nature of a kshatriya will impel him to act accordingly and to not act out of egotism but instead to engage in all actions seeking refuge in the Lord mentally surrendering all actions to Him accepting Him to be the supreme and have his mind fixed on the Lord to tide over all the difficulties. Lord Krishna says if Arjuna does this, he will attain the eternal immutable State through His grace but if he acts out of egotism and does not follow the instructions as laid out, he will be get destroyed.
Lord Krishna in the above verses instructs Arjuna to surrender and seek refuge in the Supreme Truth and Supreme Being that appears to be bound to prakrti but actually remains only as a witness and non-agent and to engage in all rightful duties of yajnah-dāna-tapah and actions with karma-phala-tyāgah with dhyāna-yoga as the parah-nityam and seek the Lord alone. This is the Supreme instruction which is more secret than any secret received by Arjuna as he is dear to the Lord and the Lord speaks to him as a friend and His well-wisher.
Lord Krishna in the above verses yet again instructs Arjuna about seeking refuge in Him and that he will surely attain Him alone through absolute surrender.
aham brahma param dhāma
brahmāham paramam padam