Dhrutharashtra said, “Wise One! Whose name is silence? Is it the end of sound or the Paramātmā swaroopa – the Supreme Self? Which is silence in these two? Please explain the nature of silence. Does a wise one attain the Paramātmā – the Supreme Self, who is Silence through silence? Revered Sage! How do people in this universe describe the character and quality of silence?”
Sanatsujatha Paramarshi said, “Hey King! That Paramātmā – the Supreme Self is known to be Silence where the accessory of the mind namely the voice of the Vedas does not reach and hence, IT is the form of Silence. The words and aksharas – letters/alphabets of both the Vedas and the universe has manifested from Paramaeshwar – the Supreme Being and IT reveals Itself through intense absorption in dhyāna“.
Dhrutharashtra said, “All-knowing One! If a man who has studied the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda and Sama Veda commits sin, does he escape that punishment or not?”
Sanatsujatha Paramarshi said, “King! I will not speak an untruth and tell you false things. There is no protection for that ignorant man who has studied the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda and Sama Veda from his sins.
The liar who indulges in false and deceitful acts will find no emancipation from his sins through the Vedas. Similar to how a bird leaves its nest when the feathers spring out, the Vedas also forsake the sinner in his last moments”.
Dhrutharashtra said, “Venerable One! If it is incapable to protect the Vedas without dharma, then why are the ramblings of brahmans knowledgeable about the Vedas being pure been mentioned forever?”
Sanatsujatha Paramarshi said, “O Magnanimous One! The names of Parabrahma Paramātmā and other particular forms give credence in this universe. This matter has been indicated in detail in the Vedas but in reality, IT’s form has been said to be of fantastical nature in this world.
It can be attained through tapah and yagna as per the exposition of the Vedas. An exponent of the Vedas attains this good through tapah and yagna. And after he destroys all the sins through the renunciation of the fruits of actions and inactions and good deeds, his antah-karana will exude jnāna.
Then that wise man will attain the Paramātmā – the Supreme Self through jnāna but a man who is interested in the fruits of duties, actions and inactions of the three divisions of dharma, artha and kama will take the fruits of all his duties, actions and inactions of this world and enjoy them in paraloka and upon the exhaustion of those fruits, will take another birth and return to this world.
When tapah is done in this world with desirous intentions, then the fruits of that will be experienced in the paraloka but a brahman who has received upadesh and instructions through the Guru and performs tapah with absolute renunciation of the fruits of actions and inactions will attain the fruit of tattvajnāna in this world only. Hence, there are two types of tapasya – riddhi and samriddhi“.
Dhrutharashtra asks, “Sanatsujatha Paramarshi! How does tapah, that is pure and befitting excel all others in radiance and jnāna? Please explain to me in a manner that is simple for me to understand”.
Sanatsujatha Paramarshi replies, “O King! This tapah is bereft of all blemishes. There is no blemish of desirous nature in this. Hence, it has been said to be pure and therefore, this pure tapah in all aspects excels the other tapah that is of desirous nature performed with the expectation of its fruits.
Hey King! The tapasya that you are enquiring about from Me, is the moola, the primordial cause for this whole universe. The exponents of the Vedas have proclaimed that one attains the param amrit – Supreme Ambrosia of moksha – salvation from this tapasya that is bereft of desire and desirous nature”.
Dhrutharashtra asks, “O Sanatsujatha Paramarshi! I have heard the greatness and importance of flawless tapasya. Now, please reveal the blemishes in tapasya through which I can know about the secrets of this guarded infinite brahma-tattva“.
Sanatsujatha Paramarshi said, “O King! There are twelve types of flaws like krodha – anger in tapasya and there are thirteen types of evil men. There are twelve qualities of brahmans like dharma and others that are mentioned about frequently in the scriptures and stories.
Kama, krodha, lobha, moha, chikirsha, nirdayatā, asuya, abhimaan, shoka, spruha, irsha and nindha are the twelve types of flaws that exist in men and it is best to forsake these.
Great King! Just like how a hunter looks for an opportunity to observe the deer in silence and hidden from their view to formulate a plan to either injure, kill or capture, similarly each and every type of flaw looks for an opportunity to attack a man.
The six types of evil men are the ones who are boastful, who are lazy and greedy, who are egotistical and unable to take any criticism and insult from anyone, who are perennially angry within, who are volatile and who do not protect those who seek shelter. They remain fearless even during a great crisis and continue to behave in the same way indulging in sinful acts.
Those who are interested in sexual acts and gratification, those who are incongruous, those who are extremely conceited, those who regret after performing charity and charitable acts, those who are very niggardly, those who praise arth and kama and those who have hatred towards women – these seven adding to the previously mentioned six are the thirteen types of evil men.
Dharma, satya, indriyanigraha, tapa, absence of jealousy and envy, lajja, sahanasheelata, not seeing any flaws in any being, performance of yagnas, dhāna, dhairya and knowledge of the shastras are the twelve qualities of brahman.
Those who master these twelve qualities can bring all the men in this universe under his influence. Even if he possesses three or two or even one of these befitting qualities, it is to be understood that he will be in possession of all types of wealth.
Ambrosia is inherent in the three qualities of dama, tyāga and apramad. It has been said that mastery of these qualities leads an intelligent brahman to the Paramātmā swaroopa – the Supreme Self thereby attaining the Paramātmā.
There are eighteen qualities in dama – control of the senses. Contrary belief to duties-improper acts, untrue dialogue, seeing faults in qualities, desire and lust for women, spending all the time in accumulating money and wealth, willingness to experience desirous nature and its fruits, anger, agony and sorrow, hunger and thirst, greed and lust, indulging in gossip, envy, cruelty, grief, disinterest in the shastras, forgetting to perform duties, excessive chatter and thinking no end of oneself are the blemishes that one has to free himself from and one who is liberated from these is called a satpurusha.
There are eighteen blemishes in mada – pride and arrogance and the aforementioned qualities of dama are the flaws of mada. There are six types of tyāga – renunciation and all the six are exalted and excellent but the third type of renunciation namely that of kama tyāga is incredibly difficult. Renunciation of kama tyāga will definitely see a man cross over the three types of sorrow. Renunciation of kama tyāga will assure one of every possible success.
Great King! There are six ultimate types of tyāga that have been spoken off. The first type of tyāga is not to be overjoyed on receiving wealth and prosperity. The second type of tyāga is to spend money for conducting yagnas–homas, digging wells, lakes and ponds and laying gardens and others. The third type of tyāga is to renunciate kama by embracing dispassion. Maharshis speak of this as the solution for the inexpressible moksha. Therefore, this third tyāga is considered to be outstanding.
The renunciation that awakens when one renunciates all belongings with dispassion will see that the willingness will not arise upon consumption. Renunciation is not possible upon collection of excessive wealth and valuables. Renunciation of kama is not possible even if one experiences the actions and fruits of duties and acts simply to fulfill the desire.
If a man who is associated with all the qualities and richness sees that the duties and actions performed by him are not perfect, then he should not be sorrowful and ashamed.
The fourth type of tyāga is the nonoccurrence of ill-temper if an unpleasant incident has taken place. The fifth type of tyāga is not to encourage and supplicate the desirous thoughts and matter of woman and children.
The sixth type of tyāga is to be charitable and supplicate towards the matters of a worthy one. Benediction is brought about through such acts. A man becomes aware and in control of his senses through the qualities of renunciation. There are eight qualities of apramad as spoken about – satya, dhyāna, speaking about Advaitha and the Higher truths, samādhāna – reconciliation and satisfaction, vairagya – dispassion, not indulging in thievery, brahmacharya and aparigraha – renunciation.
The eight qualities of both tyāga and apramad need to be understood. The aforementioned eighteen flaws of mada have to be firmly forsaken. There are eight faults in pramad and they have to be forsaken as well.
Bharata! The desire, feeling and understanding to experience from the myriad subjects of the five sensory organs and the sixth being the mind are causes for pramad – lack of discrimination, foolishness, carelessness, delirium and hallucinations and brooding over the past and hoping for the future are the two flaws. A man who is free from these eight flaws is happy.
King of Kings! You become the satyaswaroopa. The entire universe is consecrated in satya. Dama, tyāga and apramad and other qualities help one attain the satyaswaroopa Paramātmā and Ambrosia is consecrated in satya only.
One should desist from flaws and then should observe tapas and vrat as this is the law established by the Creator. Satya is the observance of exalted persons. Men should be free from the above mentioned blemishes and be associated with the fine qualities. The pure tapas of a person like that is indeed rich and perfect. King! I have explained what you asked me about in brief. This tapas will set aside the difficulties of janma, mrtyu and vridhavastha and is bereft of sin and evil and is absolutely pure”.
Dhrutharashtra asks, “Great Sage! The fifth mentioned about in the history, scriptures and Puranas sees some specific peoples name taken from all the Vedas and called as panchavedi. Some others are called chaturvedi and some others trivedi.
Similarly some are called as dvivedi, ekavedi and anrich – those who have not studied the Vedas. Who among these can I understand to be brahman?”
Sanatsujatha Paramarshi said, “O King! There was only one Veda at the time of creation but got divided into various parts because of the inability to understand it. The quintessence of that one Veda which is satyaswaroopa established in Paramātmā is a rare entity.
Some people without understanding the quintessence of the Vedas proclaim themselves to be scholars and well-versed with the Vedas. Their acts of charity, adhyayan – study and method of conducting yagnas is to enjoy the fruits of worldly and material happiness and is with a proclivity for lust and greed.
In reality, one who has become displaced from the satyaswaroopa Paramātmā is motivated towards that thinking. Therefore, the methodology of performing yagnas is laid down in detail after determining the authentication of this satyaswaroopa Vedas,
Some perform yagnas through the mind, some others through enunciation and for some others it is accomplished through actions and inactions. A satyasankalp man receives the heavenly worlds as per his sankalpa.
But, performance of yagnas and other rightful actions and inactions are mandatory and need to be observed till one who has been initiated in a vrat does not achieve the sankalpa that has been made. The root name of this initiation comes from dīkṣh vratādeshe. Satyaswaroopa Paramātmā is the most sought after by satpurushas.
Because the fruit of jnāna of the Paramātmā is the most discernible and the fruit of tapas is implicit. Hence, brahmans who are well-read should be understood to be only bookworms.
Hence O King! Do not accept one who simply indulges in tall talk to be a brahman. One who is never separate from the satyaswaroopa Paramātmā is to be taken to be a brahman.
O King! Atharvā muni and the conglomeration of Maharshis who have been praised and spoken about in the past are only known as chanda – meter. But one who after reading all the Vedas in entirety has still failed to understand the Paramātmā who is worthy of being known and much sought after is not learned in reality.
Great King! Chanda is in an absolute relationship with Paramātmā . Hence, it is necessary to study the Vedas to attain the form of the Vedas namely Paramātmā who is the unsurpassable self-effulgent light.
King! In reality there is none who has known this tattva of the Vedas and if it can be understood, then only a very rare man can understand this secret. A man who knows only about the Maha Vakyas of the Vedas will not be able to know through the Vedas about the Paramātmā who is worthy of being known. But one who is established in satya, will know and realize the Vedapurusha namely Paramātmā.
Even the dedicated and sincere seekers of the secrets of the Vedas will be unable to understand its secrets because the secret of the Vedas and Paramātmā cannot be comprehended through one’s mind-intellect and others. A man who only knows the methodology and procedures of the Vedas will understand through his intellect only the subject of benefits and fruits of performing the acts as prescribed in the Vedas that will be bestowed upon him and therefore, one who is aware of the fruits and benefits of performing the prescribed acts with desirous intentions will not know the Parabrahma Paramātmā.
But one who has known, understood and realized the secret of the Vedas will also know and realize Paramātmā. But neither does the one who knows the Maha Vakyas nor the one who is well-versed with the Vedas know Paramātmā. Also, one knows the secret of the Vedas is a Mahapurush who knows Brahman and he realizes the secret of the Vedas through the Vedas only.
Similar to how the branches of a tree lean forward to reveal the secret and important time and art of dvitya thithi of the moon, a learned man also claims that the Vedas are to be used as a guide and understood for one to attain the jnāna of satyaswaroopa Paramātmā.
I consider that man to be a brahman who not only knows the tattva of Paramātmā but also elucidates the Vedas in a faithful and accurate manner and who’s doubts have been eradicated and is competent to set aside all the doubts of others as well.
There is no need to travel in search of this ātmā in the directions of east, south, west or north and therefore, where does the question arise of travelling to either the eight directions or any corner of this universe? Similarly there is no need to go in search of it in a land that is obscure.
One should not search for the ātmā in matters that are unrelated to IT and also should not search for it in the words of the Vedas but instead should sit for tapas and attain sakshatkara with the Supreme Being.
One should not put in any effort to indulge the sensory organs and instead should contemplate and immerse oneself in Paramātmā. One should not endeavour through the mind either. O King! You also contemplate and immerse yourself in that illustrious shining Paramaeshwar who resides in your heartbeat through your intelligence.
One does not become a muni by observing silence or by staying in the forest. The one who knows and realizes the form of his ātmā is to be called an exalted muni.
A jnanipurush is called viyaakaran because he reveals the different meanings and interpretations. Brahma is the main cause for all the meanings to manifest and hence, He is the first erudite scholar. The learned ones also explain and narrate these meanings similarly and are also called as erudite scholars.
A yogi who sees the discernible worlds in the universe will call all those worlds as true and real. But one who is established in the satyaswaroopa Paramātmā at all times is the omniscient exalted brahman.
Hey King! A man can attain the sakshatkara with Paramātmā if the aforesaid dharma and others and the study of the procedures of the Vedas is also followed with dedication. I am telling you this based on my mental acumen”.
[Sanatsujatha Parva – Chapters 43 of Udyoga Parva – Slokas 1 – 63]