।। द्वितीयोऽध्यायः ।।
।। प्रथमः पादः ।।
स्मृत्यनवकाशदोषप्रसङ्ग इति चेन्नान्यस्मृत्यनवकाशदोषप्रसङ्गात् ।। 2.1.1 ।।
It has been ascertained that the Supreme Self is the Primordial Cause of this universe. This universe, a manifestation of IT as a reflection of ITSELF is in reality the Supreme Self, pure, eternal and unabated BLISS. Some Smritis navigate through this in different ways which are equally relevant because, in the end, the proposition and illustration leads to the same conclusion that the Supreme Self is the Primal Cause.
And as it is impossible to go against the tenets of scriptural authorities, all propositions that there exists another cause for the universe is to be rejected. The theory that the universe has one foundation and that the Supreme Brahman is looked upon as a goal to be attained also holds no water as the Supreme Brahman has created the universe as a reflection of ITSELF. Therefore, the Supreme Brahman is the only support, cause and foundation for this universe.
एतेन योगः प्रत्युक्तः।।2.1.3।।
And hence, the Yoga philosophy of two independent entities as the foundation of and for creation has also been refuted.
न विलक्षणत्वादस्य तथात्वं च शब्दात्।।2.1.4।।
Due to differences arising from delusion and illusion, one may think that the Supreme Brahman is not the cause of the world as the world is of a contrary nature from the Supreme Brahman. However, the reality is that one should see, know, realize, perceive and experience this universe in its true state of EXISTENCE, BLISS AND CONSCIOUSNESS.
But the reference to the presiding deities in each part of the body and also the attributes and qualities given to the gods and goddesses are approved by the Sruti and other texts. One must remember that the creator, sustainer, destroyer, doer, witness, enjoyer and beneficiary residing in all the beings including gods and goddesses is the Supreme Brahman.
The divine form of gods and goddesses seen is again only an illusion. One must remember that any seeing is possible only if there is a seer, a scene seen and the act of seeing. When all three dissipate, then only the ONE remains.
असदिति चेन्न प्रतिषेधमात्रत्वात्।।2.1.7।।
If one says that the world that is creation itself, the act of creating and the final result has manifested from non-existence, then one must pose the question of WHO EXISTS? One can determine what is existence and non-existence only if they EXIST. So, these differences that the world has emanated from non-existence before the Brahman manifested ITSELF as the world is just a deliberation.
It is imperative to KNOW THYSELF.
What is the real meaning of dissolution? To whom is dissolution attributed? When creation is a mere reflection of Consciousness, the so-called sustenance and dissolution is also a mere illusion of the same. Hence, it must be remembered that the Supreme Brahman is the Unmanifest and the Unknown, Existence, Bliss and Consciousness.
When one sees, knows, realizes, perceives and experiences the entire universe in its real state of Bliss, then to whom does dissolution occur?
न तु दृष्टान्तभावात्।।2.1.9।।
And therefore, the Supreme Brahman remains untainted and unaffected by the illusion that IT has manifested as a reflection of ITSELF.
And therefore, objections raised that when the entire universe undergoes dissolution, it also destroys the Cause for it does not seem to hold water. As the Supreme Brahman is the Primordial Cause, the Unmanifest and the Unknown and the universe is a mere reflection of ITSELF.
The knowledge, wisdom, perception and experience of the Supreme Self and the entire universe as the Supreme Self is the Ultimate Truth. All mental faculties of mind, egoity, intellect, memory and reasoning are only applicable to the illusion, reflection of Consciousness. It is imperative to always remember that all these have manifested as a reflection of the Supreme Being and are in reality the the Supreme Being.
When the seer, the scene seen and the act of seeing dissipates and only the Supreme Reality exists, then who determines if the reasoning exists or if it is sound or not?
एतेन शिष्टापरिग्रहा अपि व्याख्याताः।।2.1.12।।
Arguments made in favour and against Sankhya are sometimes accepted by the wise and sometimes not. Endless debates, discussions and arguments can go on about the meaning of reasoning, who and what is the foundation and cause of and for the universe. However, if one abides in the Supreme Self residing in the heart lotus of one, then all questions and doubts vanish.
If it is said that the Supreme Brahman being the Primal Cause is also the enjoyer of the objects of enjoyment and pleasure, then a distinction is created between the enjoyer and the objects of enjoyment that is yet again an illusion. Who is the enjoyer? What is meaning of enjoyment? Is there a second entity besides the Supreme Self?
In reality, the cause and effect are one and the same as the Primordial Cause is the Supreme Being and the result if any is also the Supreme Being. The Supreme Being is untainted and unattached to both the cause and effect as IT is the Unmanifest and the Unknown.
As the Primordial Cause manifests ITSELF as a reflection, the effect is also created as a reflection. The effect ceases to exist if the Primordial Cause does not manifest ITSELF as a reflection of ITSELF as the effect and cause are indistinguishable.
And therefore, the effect is in place only after the cause that is creation has been created by the Primordial Cause.
असद्व्यपदेशान्नेति चेन्न धर्मान्तरेण वाक्यशेषात्।।2.1.17।।
Many may say that the effect was non-existent before creation. However, one needs to understand that the cause and effect are one and the same. The cause that is creation has been manifested as a reflection of the Primordial Cause that is the Supreme Being and the effect that is also a reflection of the Primordial Cause is in reality the Supreme Being.
And hence, through knowledge, perception and experience of the universe as the Supreme Being, one realizes that the cause and effect are the Supreme Being.
And like a piece of cloth.
यथा च प्राणादि।।2.1.20।।
And as in the case of different prānas, though apparently different, they are in reality the self-effulgent Light of Lights.
Some think that as the jeeva is non-different from the Supreme Brahman, actions, results and defects of merit and demerit are accrued by the Supreme Brahman. However, this premise does not hold water as the Supreme Brahman though residing as the jeeva in the heart lotus of one and all is the creator, sustainer, destroyer, witness, beneficiary, enjoyer and doer remains untainted and a non-agent.
अधिकं तु भेदनिर्देशात्।।2.1.22।।
A statement in the Sruti declares that there is a difference between the Supreme Brahman and jeeva and that the Supreme Brahman is much more than the jeeva. Yes, this is true as long as one looks at the jeeva in the reflection of Consciousness. In reality, the jeeva is neither created nor destroyed and is eternal.
Like how the gods and goddesses and millions of beings come into existence in the creation that is a manifestation of ITSELF by ITSELF, the jeeva also is just a mere illusion in this reflection of Consciousness and is in reality, the Supreme Brahman.
And because different types of stones are produced from the same earth, the statement that the jeeva and the Supreme Brahman are different does not hold water.
उपसंहारदर्शनान्नेति चेन्न क्षीरवद्धि।।2.1.24।।
If one says that the Supreme Brahman without external help cannot be the cause of the world because an agent is always a collector and is seen collecting material, then one can categorically refute this as even milk can turn to curds without any help and from milk, so many things are produced.
The phenomenon of the Supreme Brahman creating the world is like the gods and goddesses and other beings in this world.
One may say that as the Supreme Brahman is the Primordial Cause, there is a possibility that the entire Brahman undergoes modification or that the Brahman is without parts which a violation of the scriptural statement.
The Supreme Brahman is Immutable, the Unmanifest and the Unknown. To say that the Supreme Brahman undergoes modifications is absurd, as an eternal entity is the Absolute.
But the previous statement can be easily refuted as the scriptural texts have manifested from the Supreme Brahman and are in reality, the Supreme Brahman. However, one must remember that the Vedas are anādi and unmanifest and that the Supreme Brahman is infinite, eternal, immutable and subtlest of the subtle.
आत्मनि चेव विचित्राश्च हि।।2.1.28।।
The jeeva that is the reality, Consciousness, infinity, the very embodiment of bliss, Supreme Self, the ultimate Light, unmanifest and the cause of the manifest world, the maya appears to be diverse. This diversity in the jeeva and the Supreme Brahman is a mere illusion and referable only to the reflection of Consciousness.
The view of an opponent will also be subject to these very objections.
सर्वोपेता च तद्दर्शनात्।।2.1.30।।
The Supreme Brahman is the Primordial Cause, the creator, the sustainer, the destroyer, the witness, the enjoyer, the beneficiary and the doer. IT is the Absolute and Ultimate Truth endowed with the Supreme Energy as extolled in the scriptures.
If it is stated that the Supreme Brahman cannot create as it does not possess organs though endowed with limitless energy, then one must refer to the previous statements that the Supreme Brahman is the Supreme Cause and has manifested this entire universe as a reflection of ITSELF.
Generally, to every action and inaction, there is an equal and opposite reaction and this is seen in the illusory universe. However, as the Primordial Cause of this illusory universe is eternal, pure, infinite, indivisible, subtlest of the subtle, Existence, Consciousness and Bliss, it remains untainted even after manifesting ITSELF as IT’s reflection. The reason is that the universe in reality is neither created nor destroyed as it is the Supreme Being.
The Supreme Brahman’s creation and manifestation of ITSELF as a reflection is just a pastime. The truth is that the entire creation is always in a state of unmanifest and is neither created nor destroyed.
वैषम्यनैर्घृण्ये न सापेक्षत्वात्तथाहि दर्शयति।।2.1.34।।
Partiality and cruelty is attributed only to the reflection of Consciousness and not to Consciousness ITSELF and this has been declared in the scriptures.
न कर्माविभागादिति चेन्नानादित्वात्।।2.1.35।।
As the Supreme Brahman is beginningless and endless and yet has a beginning, a middle and an end when talking about IT’s reflection, it should be known that as the universe is neither created nor destroyed and is in a state of unmanifest, it has no beginning and no end as it is the Supreme Brahman.
उपपद्यते चाप्युपलभ्यते च।।2.1.36।।
And that the world is without beginning is a fact that has been endorsed by the scriptures.
And because all the attributes required for the creation of this universe exist only in the Supreme Brahman, it is deduced that the Supreme Brahman is the Primordial Cause and the cause for this world.
[Brahma Sutras – Chapter 2, Section 1 – Slokas 1 – Slokas 37]