Brahma Sutras – Chapter 3, Section 2 –  Slokas 1 – Slokas 41

।। तृतीयोऽध्यायः ।।
।। द्वितीयः पादः ।।

सन्ध्ये सृष्टिराह हि ।। 3.2.1 ।।

The Sruti states that real creation is there in the intermediate stage between waking and deep sleep.


निर्मातारं चैके पुत्रादयश्च।।3.2.2।।

And some Sakhas state that the Self is the creator of the objects of desire when one is asleep and objects of desire for sons and others.


मायामात्रं तु कात्स्न्र्येनानभिव्यक्तस्वरूपत्वात्।।3.2.3।।

But the dream state and dream world is an illusion as its nature has not manifested in entirety with the attributes of the waking state.


सूचकश्च हि श्रुतेराचक्षते च तद्विदः।।3.2.4।।

Though the dream world is an illusion, it serves as an omen for it is said in the Srutis and by soothsayers.


पराभिध्यानात्तु तिरोहितं ततो ह्यस्य बन्धविपर्ययौ।।3.2.5।।

By meditation on the Supreme Lord who is the Supreme Truth covered by delusion, illusion and ignorance, the similarity of the Supreme Self and the jeeva becomes manifest; for the jeeva’s bondage and liberation is on account of the Supreme Lord.


देहयोगाद्वा सोऽपि।।3.2.6।।

And the covering of the jeeva’s rulership also results from its connection with the body.


तदभावो नाडीषु तच्छ्रुतेरात्मनि च।।3.2.7।।

The absence of dreaming (dreamless sleep) takes place in the nerves and in the Self as stated in the Sruti.


अतः प्रबोधोऽस्मात्।।3.2.8।।

Hence, the awakening from this Brahman. The meaning of this is that when the jeeva returns from the deep sleep to the waking state, IT returns from the Supreme Brahman and therefore, in the Sushupti, the jeeva is one with IT’s True State.


स एव तु कर्मानुस्मृतिशब्दविधिभ्यः।।3.2.9।।

What is important to note is that the same Self or jeeva returns from the Brahman after Sushupti on account of IT’s karma, memory, scriptural authority and precept.


मुग्धेऽर्धसम्पत्तिः परिशेषात्।।3.2.10।।

During a fainting spell, there is partial attainment of the state of deep sleep as this is the only option available.


न स्थानतोऽपि परस्योभयलिङ्गं सर्वत्र हि।।3.2.11।।

The Supreme Brahman is the Immutable, the Unknown and the Unmanifest. Though IT has created this universe as a reflection of ITSELF and appears to have attributes and qualities, the truth is IT remains unattached, untainted and a non-agent. IT is the witness, enjoyer, beneficiary and doer and yet remains attributeless.


न भेदादिति चेन्न प्रत्येकमतद्वचनात्।।3.2.12।।

The multitude of beings and forms of gods and goddesses expressed in various texts are referable only to the reflection of Consciousness as in truth, they are the Supreme Self.


अपि चैवमेके।।3.2.13।।

Moreover, some teach thus.


अरूपवदेव हि तत्प्रधानत्वात्।।3.2.14।।

The Supreme Brahman is formless, beginningless and endless and the Unmanifest. This is the main purport of all the scriptural texts.



The formless Brahman appears to be with a form as IT is limited by adjuncts like the five elements and sensory organs. It is like how light takes form when connected to bodies with form.


आह च तन्मात्रम्।।3.2.16।।

And the scriptures declare that the Supreme Brahman is that intelligence only.


दर्शयति चाथो अपि स्मर्यते।।3.2.17।।

The Supreme Brahman is the Unmanifest, the Unknown, the Immutable, formless, subtlest of the subtle, beginningless, endless and eternal. The same has been said in the scriptures and is stated by the Smritis.


अत एव चोपमा सूर्यकादिवत्।।3.2.18।।

All references to the Brahman of having brilliance like the sun and others are limited only to the reflection of Consciousness.


अम्बुवदग्रहणात्तु न तथात्वम्।।3.2.19।।

The entire universe and its adjuncts is a mere illusion, reflection of Consciousness and there is nothing apart or different from the Supreme Brahman. Just like how the surface of water only displays the reflections of trees, sky, sun rays, moon rays and birds without any change in its form or nature, the universe is also a mere reflection of IT.



Though it appears that the Supreme Brahman is an agent on account of the adjuncts and universe and it appears that there is a change like increase or decrease, the truth is that the Supreme Brahman in unattached, untainted and a non-agent.



And this is as per the scriptural revelation.


प्रकृतैतावत्त्वं हि प्रतिषेधति ततो ब्रवीति च भूयः।।3.2.22।।

The ideology of Netineti is the best way for one to discard the delusion and abide in the Self. The Sruti states that the Truth lies beyond what one thinks, sees, perceives and experiences to be the truth which is a mere illusion, a reflection of Consciousness.


तदव्यक्तमाह हि।।3.2.23।।

The Brahman is the Unmanifest for it is said in the scriptures.


अपि च संराधने प्रत्यक्षानुमानाभ्याम्।।3.2.24।।

The Supreme Brahman is experienced in perfect meditation as known from the Sruti and Smriti.


प्रकाशादिवच्चावैशेष्यं प्रकाशश्च कर्मण्यभ्यासात्।।3.2.25।।

The Supreme Brahman like light appears to be different in activity but in reality is pure, eternal, untainted and unattached and this is in accordance with the repetitions of the Sruti.


अतोऽनन्तेन तथा हि लिङ्गम्।।3.2.26।।

Therefore, the jeeva becomes one with the Infinite, thus, stated in the scriptures.



As both difference and non-difference is taught by the Sruti, the relation of the jeeva and the Brahman is to be understood like the snake and its coil.


प्रकाशाश्रयवद्वा तेजस्त्वात्।।3.2.28।।

Or like the relation of light and its source that are both effulgence.



Or the relation between the jeeva and the Brahman as shown earlier.



And on account of the denial.


परमतः सेतून्मानसम्बन्धभेदव्यपदेशेभ्यः।।3.2.31।।

The entire universe is an illusion and a reflection of Consciousness. There is nothing apart or different from the Supreme Brahman and all depictions of forms of gods and goddesses that are in reality the Supreme Brahman are referable only to the reflection of Consciousness. Therefore, the mention of some entity superior to this Brahman as there is mention of measure, connection, difference, boundary and bank are referable only to the reflection of Consciousness.



The Brahman is referred to as an embankment on account of similarity.


बुद्ध्यर्थः पादवत्।।3.2.33।।

The Supreme Brahman is described and depicted as having size for the sake of understanding just like feet.



The points of connection and difference with respect to the Supreme Brahman are made on account of limiting adjuncts as in the case of light and others.



And it is reasonable.



And similarly on account of categorical denial of all other things apart from the Supreme Brahman.


अनेन सर्वगतत्वमायामशब्दादिभ्यः।।3.2.37।।

Hereby is established the all-pervasiveness of the Supreme Brahman on the strength and confirmation of scriptural statements and texts elaborating on IT’s extent.


फलमत उपपत्तेः।।3.2.38।।

The fruits of action are from IT. This is a reasonable conclusion.



The scriptures declare that the Supreme Brahman is the ordainer of the fruits of actions.


धर्मं जैमिनिरत एव।।3.2.40।।

Jaimini Maharshi thinks virtuous and good deeds yields fruits of the actions.


पूर्वं तु बादरायणो हेतुव्यपदेशात्।।3.2.41।।

But Bādarāyanā Maharshi thinks that the Supreme Lord is the bestower of the fruits of actions as IT is declared to be the Primordial Cause and therefore, cause for all actions and inactions.


[Brahma Sutras – Chapter 3, Section 2 –  Slokas 1 – Slokas 41]

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