।। चतुर्थोऽध्यायः ।।
।। प्रथमः पादः ।।
आवृत्तिरसकृदुपदेशात् ।। 4.1.1 ।।
Repetition of hearing, chanting, reflection and meditation on the teaching of the Self is necessary as it has been repeatedly instructed in the scriptures.
And on account of the indicatory mark.
आत्मेति तूपगच्छन्ति ग्राहयन्ति च।।4.1.3।।
The Sruti texts acknowledge Brahman as the Self that resides in one and all and also teaches others to realize IT as such.
न प्रतीके न हि सः।।4.1.4।।
The seeker is not to identify himself with a symbol, for he is not that.
The symbols of the mind and sun are to be regarded as Brahman and not vice versa as one needs to meditate upon these symbols to overcome differentiation. It is only by looking upon the illusion, reflection of Consciousness that one can realize the Primordial Cause as in the natural order of things, an inferior thing is looked upon as superior but not vice versa.
And the ideas of the sun and others are to be superimposed on the subsidiary parts of the sacrificial rites to conform with the statement of the scriptures.
One should practise Upāsanā in the sitting posture as it is possible in that way alone.
As Upāsanā implies meditation.
And meditativeness is attributed to motionlessness.
Moreover, the Smritis mention the same thing.
Wherever the concentration of mind is attained, there meditation is to be performed irrespective of the specification of the place.
आप्रायणात्तत्रापि हि दृष्टम्।।4.1.12।।
Meditation is to be undertaken till the physical frame falls off, for it is observed in the scriptures that it is done so even then.
तदधिगम उत्तरपूर्वाघयोरश्लेषविनाशौ तद्व्यपदेशात्।।4.1.13।।
When one realizes the Supreme Self, the result is non-attachment and destruction of the subsequent and previous sins respectively, for it is declared in the scriptures.
इतरस्याप्येवमसंश्लेषः पाते तु।।4.1.14।।
The Knower of Brahman is untouched by virtue and vice and is unaffected by action and inaction and their subsequent fruits. Liberation will follow when the mortal coil is shed.
अनारब्धकार्ये एव तु पूर्वे तदवधेः।।4.1.15।।
The sanchita karma that has not yet begun to bear fruit is destroyed by Knowledge while the prarabhda karma which has begun to yield fruit is destroyed only by working it out, for death is the limit set by the scriptures for Liberation to take place.
अग्निहोत्रादि तु तत्कार्यायैव तद्दर्शनात्।।4.1.16।।
The fruits of the daily Agnihotra and others are not destroyed by Knowledge, for these contribute to the very same fruit as Knowledge and therefore, Liberation as seen from the scriptures.
It is the view of both Jaimini Maharshi and Bādarāyana Maharshi that there are indeed good works different from the daily Agnihotra and the like.
यदेव विद्ययेति हि।।4.1.18।।
Because the statement, “Whatever is done with Knowledge” indicates this.
भोगेन त्वितरे क्षपयित्वा सम्पद्यते।।4.1.19।।
After exhausting the good and sinful works that have begun to bear fruit by experiencing the fruits in the present life, one becomes one with Brahman.
[Brahma Sutras – Chapter 4, Section 1 – Slokas 1 – Slokas 19]
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